Physiological ergogenic means: Oxygen support
In the body to provide muscle activity there are three energy systems performing at different speeds, the resynthesis of ATP is the immediate energy source for muscle contraction. For the functioning of one of them, namely, oxygen systems of power supply, of course, requires oxygen, which is in the processes of biological oxidation is used to transform the chemical energy contained in carbohydrates and fats, into energy ATP. Therefore athletes to achieve optimal level of aerobic endurance is important to have a high potential for aerobic energy mechanisms.
The results of numerous studies indicate that the indicators of aerobic endurance can be significantly reduced if the flow of oxygen in the body is limited.
If the low oxygen in the body, or hypoxia, causes a decrease in aerobic endurance, the additional consumption of oxygen, or hyperoxia can increase her.
Thus, the theoretical basis for the use of oxygen “support” as ergogenic means is to increase oxygen delivery to working muscles to improve the energy production of the oxygen energy system. The effective functioning of this energy mechanism is able to reduce the need for resynthesis of ATP is carried out by lactate energy system, reduce the rate of production of lactic acid, which, in turn, may prevent the early onset of fatigue.
When conducting scientific studies use different ways to supply the body with oxygen, but the most common was the inhalation of air through the mouthpiece. The percentage of oxygen in cylinders could be varied in the range of 21 %, where it is possible to control the placebo effect, up to 100 %.
Oxygen “support” before physical activity. The opportunity to improve physical health through inhalation of pure oxygen for a sports event most scientific studies have not been confirmed. The lack of effect is due, firstly, to the fact that the blood has a limited ability to bind more oxygen. The total amount of blood in a healthy adult is about 5 liters, which at rest is to 1 liter of oxygen. Inhalation of pure oxygen can improve this content by about 7 %, or 70 ml, which is very small to significantly affect the production capacity.
Oxygen support during exercise. At the same time, the use of oxygen “support” during the execution of physical activity associated with the development of aerobic endurance, discovered the physiological improvement of energy production and efficiency increase. It was reported about the increase IPC by 2-5 %, which was associated with the increase of oxygen content in the blood. Aerobic power is enhanced in proportion to the amount of oxygen consumed additionally. The higher the percentage of oxygen in the “support”, the higher athletic performance.
Thus, oxygen support is an effective ergogenic means, if used during exercise, requiring the existence of aerobic endurance. However, indicators of athletic performance does not improve if breathing oxygen is used before performing a competitive load does not accelerate recovery processes during oxygen breathing and after antecedent muscular work.
Oxygen support is not conducive to improving athletic performance if it is applied before long continued physical activity or to expedite the flow of recovery processes after physical activity. In this regard, there is no reason to recommend this method as ergogenic means for use in such situations. However, some athletes can use oxygen “support” from psychological considerations.